Baserunnersperinning
(also WHIP or Ratio): Walks + hits divided by the number of
innings pitched. This is a traditional rotisserie scoring
category. Less than 1.25 is considered very good and more
than 1.50 is considered very bad. Values under 1.00 indicate
that the pitcher has allowed fewer baserunners than innings
pitched and are only achieved occasionally by elite MLB pitchers.
Batting Average: The
classic measure of batting proficiency. Defined as hits
divided by atbats. Although it is a standard rotisserie
scoring category, many analysts believe it is an imperfect
measure of offensive ability because it neglects the offensive
value of walks and assumes that all hits are equal.
Batting Eye (also
Eye): Defined as walks divided
by strikeouts and considered to be a good measure of a player's
strike zone judgment. The very best MLB hitters have
batting eye ratios over 1.00. Eye ratios of less than 0.50
are indicative of a freeswinging approach to hitting and poor
strikezone judgment. Players with eye ratios of .70 or
better have a greater probability of maintaining a high batting
average than players with eye ratios of .50 or less.
BB@9 (also Walkspergame):
Defined as (walks allowed divided by innings pitched) x
9. This is an index of how much control a pitcher has.
Values below 3.0 indicate very good control; values above 4.0
suggest problems with control.
Eye (also Batting Eye): Defined
as walks divided by strikeouts and considered to be a good measure
of a player's strike zone judgment. The very best MLB
hitters have batting eye ratios over 1.00. Eye ratios of
less than 0.50 are indicative of a freeswinging approach to
hitting and poor strikezone judgement. Players with eye
ratios of .70 or better have a greater probability of maintaining
a high batting average than players with eye ratios of .50 or
less.
Homerunspergame (also HR@9): Defined
as (home runs allowed divided by innings pitched) x 9. An
index of a pitcher's ability to keep the ball in the park.
It is impacted by ability factors as well as park factors and is
often inflated for lowWHIPbuthighERA pitchers. A rough
rough division between good and notsogood performance is 1.0.
HR@9 (also
Homerunspergame): See previous
definition.
K@9 (also Strikeoutspergame): Defined as (strikeouts
divided by innings pitched) x 9. This is a measure of a
pitcher's dominance over hitters and is a key diagnostic
stat. It is especially useful for evaluating relief pitchers
and, in particular, closers. The better MLB pitchers will
have k@9 values of 6.0 or more, and good closer candidates usually
have values above 8.0.
K@BB (also
Strikeouttowalk ratio): Defined as strikeouts divided
by walks allowed, this statistic measures a pitcher's
ability to: (1) throw strikes and, at the same time, (2) keep
hitters from getting the bat on the ball. A key diagnostic
stat for all pitchers but especially for SPs. The best MLB
pitchers have k@bb ratios over 3.00. Pitchers with k@bb
ratios below 1.00 walk more batters than they strike out and
should be avoided on fantasy/rotisserie rosters.
LAG (also Performance Lag): An index
that reflects the gap (i.e., lag) between a player's expected
statistical output and his actual statistical output. The
lag can occur for many reasons, but some of the more common
reasons are lack of playing time, injury, and latecallups.
High LAG ratings essentially mean "This player should be
putting up better stats in my scoring categories than he is
currently putting up", and they are therefore an excellent
way of identifying "sleepers" for draft purposes or free
agent bids. Players who have solid batting averages and good
onbase ability but, at the same time, belowaverage HR and/or SB
output also tend to get good LAG rankings. These players
make excellent endgame and/or reserve picks because of their
steadybutunspectacular performance.
LIMA Plan: A
rotisserie team management strategy that targets lowcost pitchers
with high TOOLS ratings, thereby freeing up dollars for offense.
The strategy was developed by Ron Shandler who used the term LIMA
as an acronym for Low Investment Mound Aces. Implementation of the
strategy involves: (a) allocating roughly 25% of the total salary
budget for pitching; (b) using no more than half of that 25% in an
effort to acquire saves; (c) assembling the remainder of the
pitching staff from players who have k@9 values of 6.0 or higher and
have k@bb values of 2.0 or higher and have hr@9 values of
1.0 or less; and (d) using the remaining 75% of the salary budget
to assemble an offense that will rank near the top of every
batting category.
Linear Weights
(also LINWGT): Discussed by Thorn and
Palmer in Total Baseball, this is essentially a regression
equation designed to estimate a hitter's run production
capabilities or a pitcher's run prevention capabilities.
For hitters, LINWGT is
defined as follows:
(.47 x B1)
+ (.78 x B2) + (1.09 x B3) + (1.40 x HR) +
(.33 x (BB+HBP) ) + (.30 x SB)  (.60 x CS)  (.27 x OUTS)
For pitchers, LINWGT is
defined as:
[ (.47 x
B1) + (.78 x B2) + (1.09 x B3) + (1.40 x HR) +
(.33 x (BB+HB+WP+BK+E) )  (.27 x (IP x 3) ) ] x 1.
Multiplying the result by 1
for pitchers creates an index where higher values are better for
all players. Linear weights is a very important player
evaluation index in simulation competitions such as DiamondMind
and APBA, and it is also a useful diagnostic stat in fantasy and
rotisserie leagues.
LINWGT (same as
Linear Weights): See previous definition.
Major League Equivalent (also MLE): A construct
popularized by Bill James and subsequently developed further by
other statisticians. Essentially, the statistics for
minor league players are "graded on a curve" and
converted to values that estimate what they would have been at the
MLB level. Adjustments are typically made for the level of
play (AA or AAA), the type of league (e.g., is it hitterfriendly
like the PCL), and the player's age. MLEs are better than
raw stats for evaluating the performance of minor leaguers.
MLE (same as Major League
Equivalent): See previous definition.
OBP (also Onbase Percentage): Defined as (H+BB+HBP)
divided by (AB+BB+HBP). Improves on batting average as an
index of offensive potential by taking walks and HBP into
account. Essentially, OBP indicates the percentage of trips
to the plate in which the hitter reached base safely. At the
MLB level, values of .350 are aboveaverage, and values of .400+
are outstanding. Conversely, values hovering around .300
(+/ .020) are below average. OBP is a key diagnostic stat
for hitters generally, and an extremely important ability for
topoftheorder hitters.
Onbase Percentage (same as
OBP): See previous definition.
Opponent's Batting
Average (also OPPBA): Can
be estimated from readilyavailable stats by calculating [Hits
Allowed divided by ((IP x 2.8) + Hits Allowed)]. The best
MLB pitchers will have values of less than .250, while ineffective
MLB pitchers will have values approaching or exceeding .300.
OPS (also Production):
Defined as OBP + SLUG. A simple but effective index of offensive
performance. Considered a key diagnostic stat for hitters
because it combines two core elements of offensive output (i.e.,
getting on base and advancing runners via extrabase hits).
At the MLB level, OPS values of .950+ are outstanding; values of
.850.950 are very good; and values of .750.850 are average or
better. Position must be taken into account, of course, when
applying these rulesofthumb. An "average" value
for corner infielders or corner outfielders would be substantially
higher than an "average" value for middle infielders or
catchers.
Performance Lag (also LAG): An index
that reflects the gap (i.e., lag) between a player's expected
statistical output and his actual statistical output. The
lag can occur for many reasons, but some of the more common
reasons are lack of playing time, injury, and latecallups.
High LAG ratings essentially mean "This player should be
putting up better stats in my scoring categories than he is
currently putting up", and they are therefore an excellent
way of identifying "sleepers" for draft purposes or free
agent bids. Players who have solid batting averages and good
onbase ability but, at the same time, belowaverage HR and/or SB
output also tend to get good LAG rankings. These players
make excellent endgame and/or reserve picks because of their
steadybutunspectacular performance.
Power Index:
A variation of the LINWGT formula that is sometimes used to
indicate a hitter's power potential. It is defined as [
(.78 x B2) + (1.09 x B3) + (1.40 x HR) ] divided by atbats.
Production (same as OPS):
Defined as OBP + SLUG. A simple but effective index of
offensive performance. Considered a key diagnostic stat for
hitters because it combines two core elements of offensive output
(i.e., getting on base and advancing runners via extrabase
hits). At the MLB level, OPS values of .950+ are
outstanding; values of .850.950 are very good; and values of
.750.850 are average or better. Position must be taken into
account, of course, when applying these rulesofthumb. An
"average" value for corner infielders or corner
outfielders would be substantially higher than an
"average" value for middle infielders or catchers.
PRORANK (also
ProRank Index): Our proprietary statistical index of
fantasy and rotisserie value. This index is individually
configured according to the scoring categories, roster
characteristics, and eligibility rules within each league.
It therefore provides an extremely accurate estimate of player
values in a specific competition. Because of its customized
nature, it is particularly helpful for owners who compete in
leagues that don't use the standard 4 x 4 scoring categories.
Values of the ProRank Index
are standardized across all players, so the statistic can be used
to directly compare offensive players at different positions and
also to compare hitters and pitchers. General guidelines for
interpreting the index are as follows:
> 90 = Superstar Territory
6090 = Top 5% of all MLB Players
4060 = Among Top 15% of Players
2040 = Among Top 25% of Players
1020 = Aboveaverage MLB Player
010 = Average MLB Player
< 00 = Belowaverage MLB Player
ProRank Index (same
as PRORANK): See previous definition.
Quality Starts (also QUALS):
Sometimes used for evaluating the performance of starting
pitchers. Defined as the number of starts in which the
pitcher lasted 6 innings or more and allowed no more than 3
earned runs. The statistic makes more sense as an
evaluation tool if it is divided by the number of games started so
that it represents a percentage measure, but this is typically not
done.
R$ (also Roto$ or Rotisserie Dollar Value): The
assumed value of a player in fantasy and rotisserie leagues.
Used as a guide for bidding during preseason drafts and as a basis
for comparison when evaluating trades.
Rotisserie dollar values are
often calculated in terms of a player's performance in the
traditional scoring categories used in 4 x 4 rotisserie
competitions. For hitters, the traditional categories
are batting average, runs batted in, home runs, and stolen
bases. For pitchers, the traditional categories are earned
run average, ratio (i.e., walks+hits per inning pitched), wins,
and saves.
A player's true dollar value
can vary considerably across leagues. Accurate
calculation of dollar values depends on a number of factors
including the number of teams in the league, the salary cap, the
number of players able to be retained, roster and reservelist
limits, and the scoring categories used to determine standings in
the league. The scoring categories are particularly
important, because they essentially define the types of players
who are valuable and the types of players who are not.
ProRank provides leaguespecific
rotisserie dollar values on all of its player lists. These
dollar values are extremely accurate because they are adjusted to
reflect the characteristics of each competition.
RAR (also Runs
Above Replacement): RAR provides an estimate of the
number of runs a hitter produces or a pitcher prevents
aboveandbeyond that of a "replacementlevel" player.
"Replacementlevel" essentially means "average
performance for a given position". The
positionspecific character of RAR is somewhat unique and makes it
a very good stat for evaluating players in simulation games like
DiamondMind and APBA. It is also a useful diagnostic
index in fantasy and rotisserie play, because it can be used to
make similarscale comparisons between hitters and pitchers.
Ratio (also Baserunnersperinning
or WHIP): Walks + hits divided by the number of innings
pitched. This is a traditional rotisserie scoring category.
Less than 1.25 is considered very good and more than 1.50 is
considered very bad. Values under 1.00 indicate that the
pitcher has allowed fewer baserunners than innings pitched and are
only achieved occasionally by elite MLB pitchers.
RC@G (also Runs Created
Per Game): "Created" by Bill
James. An estimate of the number of runs that would be
produced in a nine inning game if every slot in the batting order
was occupied by the player in question. Calculated as a
ratio with the numerator defined as (H + BB  CS) x (Total
bases + (.52 x SB)+(.26 x BB) ) divided by (AB + BB) and the
denominator defined as (AB  H + CS) divided by 25.5. The
resulting values are typically less than 10, with higher values
indicating better performance.
Rotisserie Dollar Value
(also R$ or Roto$): The assumed value of a player
in fantasy and rotisserie leagues. Used as a guide for
bidding during preseason drafts and as a basis for comparison when
evaluating trades.
Rotisserie dollar values are
often calculated in terms of a player's performance in the
traditional scoring categories used in 4 x 4 rotisserie
competitions. For hitters, the traditional categories
are batting average, runs batted in, home runs, and stolen
bases. For pitchers, the traditional categories are earned
run average, ratio (i.e., walks+hits per inning pitched), wins,
and saves.
A player's true dollar value
can vary considerably across leagues. Accurate
calculation of dollar values depends on a number of factors
including the number of teams in the league, the salary cap, the
number of players able to be retained, roster and reservelist
limits, and the scoring categories used to determine standings in
the league. The scoring categories are particularly
important, because they essentially define the types of players
who are valuable and the types of players who are not.
ProRank provides leaguespecific
rotisserie dollar values on all of its player lists. These
dollar values are extremely accurate because they are adjusted to
reflect the characteristics of each competition.
Roto$ (same as R$ or
Rotisserie Dollar Value): See previous definition.
Runs Above Replacement
(also RAR): RAR provides
an estimate of the number of runs a hitter produces or a pitcher
prevents aboveandbeyond that of a "replacementlevel"
player. "Replacementlevel" essentially means
"average performance for a given position". The
positionspecific character of RAR is somewhat unique and makes it
a very good stat for evaluating players in simulation games like
DiamondMind and APBA. It is also a useful diagnostic
index in fantasy and rotisserie play, because it can be used to
make similarscale comparisons between hitters and pitchers.
Runs Created Per Game (also
RC@G): "Created" by
Bill James. An estimate of the number of runs that would be
produced in a nine inning game if every slot in the batting order
was occupied by the player in question. Calculated as
a ratio with the numerator defined as (H + BB  CS) x (Total
bases + (.52 x SB)+(.26 x BB) ) divided by (AB + BB) and the
denominator defined as (AB  H + CS) divided by 25.5. The
resulting values are typically less than 10, with higher values
indicating better performance.
SLUG (also Slugging Percentage):
Defined as [Singles + (2 x Doubles) + (3 x Triples) + (4 x HR) ]
divided by atbats. A measure of total bases accumulated per
at bat and traditionally used as the primary index of a hitter's
power potential. Although it has been criticized on a number
of counts, it is a very useful diagnostic statistic when added to
OBP (onbase percentage) to obtain OPS (Production). When
used as a standalone stat, the best MLB power hitters have SLUG
values of .500+. Hitters who are "powerchallenged" have
values below .350.
Slugging Percentage (same
as SLUG): See previous definition.
Speed Index: Suggested
by Bill James and developed further by Ron Shandler. A
measure of several offensive elements that reflect speed skills.
The elements are SB frequency, SB efficiency, triples frequency,
and runs scored per times on base. Suggested by Bill James
and developed further by Ron Shandler. A measure of several
offensive elements that reflect speed skills. The elements are SB
frequency, SB efficiency, triples frequency, and runs scored per
times on base.
Strikeoutspergame (also
K@9): Defined as (strikeouts divided by innings pitched) x
9. This is a measure of a pitcher's dominance over hitters
and is a key diagnostic stat. It is especially useful for
evaluating relief pitchers and, in particular, closers. The
better MLB pitchers will have k@9 values of 6.0 or more, and good
closer candidates usually have values above 8.0.
Strikeouttowalk ratio
(also K@BB): Defined as strikeouts divided by walks
allowed, this statistic measures a pitcher's ability to:
(1) throw strikes and, at the same time, (2) keep hitters from
getting the bat on the ball. A key diagnostic stat for all
pitchers but especially for SPs. The best MLB pitchers have
k@bb ratios over 3.00. Pitchers with k@bb ratios below 1.00
walk more batters than they strike out and should be avoided on
fantasy/rotisserie rosters.
Tools: An
index of raw skills that underlie and support statistical
output. Extremely important as a diagnostic statistic
for both hitters and pitchers. Contributing factors to the
index for hitters include strikezone judgement, onbase ability,
power potential, and speed. Contributing factors for
pitchers include ability to throw strikes, ability to overpower
and/or fool hitters, and ability to prevent extrabase hits.
ProRank provides a tools
index for all players in its ranking lists, and these values are
directly comparable for hitters and pitchers. Players with
high values on our tools index are "safer bets" to equal
or exceed prior levels of performance than players with low values
on this index. If two players have similar rotisserie dollar
values, we strongly recommend giving preference to the one with a
better tools score.
Walks per Game (also
BB@9): Defined as (walks allowed divided by innings
pitched) x 9. This is an index of how much control a
pitcher has. Values below 3.0 indicate very good control; values
above 4.0 suggest problems with control.
WHIP (also
Baserunnersperinning or Ratio): Walks + hits divided by the
number of innings pitched. This is a traditional rotisserie
scoring category. Less than 1.25 is considered very good and
more than 1.50 is considered very bad. Values under 1.00
indicate that the pitcher has allowed fewer baserunners than
innings pitched and are only achieved occasionally by elite MLB
pitchers.
